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Geomorfologia De La Sierra Peruana Pdf Free UPD


Geomorfologia De La Sierra Peruana: A Brief Overview


The sierra, or the highlands, of Peru is a region shaped by the presence of the Andes mountain range, which runs along the western part of the continent from Trinidad and Tobago to Tierra del Fuego. The Andes originated between the Quaternary and Tertiary eras, as a result of the collision between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates[^1^]. The Peruvian sierra shows a great diversity of geomorphological units, such as cordilleras, mountains, plateaus, passes, and valleys[^2^].


Cordilleras


Cordilleras are chains of mountains that run parallel to each other. In Peru, there are three cordilleras in the north, three in the center, and two in the south. The northern Andes converge with the central Andes in the Pasco Knot, and the central Andes converge with the southern Andes in the Vilcanota Knot. The cordilleras are important for containing glaciers, which are sources of water for many rivers and lakes. Some examples of cordilleras in Peru are: Cordillera Blanca, Cordillera de Carabaya, Cordillera de La Chila, etc[^2^].


Mountains


Mountains are isolated peaks that rise above the surrounding terrain. They can be either nevados (snow-capped) or volcanoes. Some examples of mountains in Peru are: Nevado de Huascaran (the highest in Peru), Jerupaja (the second highest), Alpamayo (the most beautiful peak in the world). Coropuna (the highest volcano in Peru), Ubinas (an active volcano in Moquegua), Sabancaya (an active volcano in Arequipa)[^2^].


Plateaus


Plateaus are extensive plains at high altitudes, where livestock farming of sheep and camelids is developed. They can be either mesetas (flat areas) or llanuras intramontanas (basins surrounded by mountains). The most important plateaus in Peru are: Collao in Puno (the largest), Bon bon in Junin, Parinacochas in Ayacucho and Castrovirreina in Huncavelica[^2^].


Passes


Passes are openings between mountains that allow crossing from one side to another. They are valleys shaped by glaciers and have great importance for the layout of transversal roads across the cordillera. Some of the most known passes in Peru are: Ticlio or Anticona pass, Porculla pass, Crucero Alto pass and La Raya pass[^2^].


Valleys


Valleys are reliefs that are located between the cordilleras. They have two parts: slope and plain. The alluvial plain concentrates the large cities of the Andean territory. It is the land of great agricultural production. Some of the most important valleys in Peru are: Mantaro valley in Junin, Callejon de Huaylas valley in Ancash, Urubamba valley in Cusco[^2^].


If you want to learn more about the geomorphology of the Peruvian sierra, you can watch this video[^1^] or download this document[^2^] for free.


Geomorphological Processes


The geomorphology of the Peruvian sierra is the result of various processes that have shaped the landscape over time. These processes can be classified into two types: endogenous and exogenous. Endogenous processes are those that originate from the interior of the earth, such as tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes. Exogenous processes are those that originate from the exterior of the earth, such as erosion, weathering, sedimentation, and glaciation.


Endogenous Processes


The main endogenous process that has influenced the geomorphology of the Peruvian sierra is the tectonic movement of the Nazca and South American plates. This movement has caused the uplift of the Andes mountain range, which is still ongoing. The Andes are divided into three segments: the Northern Andes, the Central Andes, and the Southern Andes. Each segment has its own characteristics and history of formation.


The Northern Andes are composed of three cordilleras: Western, Central, and Eastern. They were formed by the subduction of the Nazca plate under the South American plate and the accretion of oceanic crust and sediments. The Western Cordillera is mainly volca




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